Afrika profitiert von Handel mit China und Asien

Kiel (03.09.2020) –

Afrikanische Länder profitieren von ihren Handelsbeziehungen mit China und anderen asiatischen Staaten. Unternehmen sind dadurch deutlich produktiver und innovativer. Die Wertschöpfung der afrikanischen Exporte steigt durch den Handel, was wiederum den Wohlstand erhöht. Das haben Forscher am Institut für Weltwirtschaft (IfW Kiel) festgestellt.

Kein einseitiges Ausbeuten

“Das Bild, dass China Afrika einseitig ausbeutet, ist falsch. Auch Afrika profitiert vom Handel mit Asien”, so die Einschätzung von Andreas Fuchs, Leiter der Kiel Institute China Initiative. Dem Forschungs-Team zufolge gibt es durch Asien nicht mehr höherwertige Tätigkeiten in der Exportstruktur der afrikanischen Länder. Das bedeutet, dass die breite Bevölkerung nicht unbedingt von dieser Entwicklung profitiert.

Die Analysten des IfW Kiel haben Handelsdaten von 46 afrikanischen Ländern südlich der Sahara von 2000 bis 2015 untersucht. Die Beziehung zu China und dem Rest von Asien hatte dabei keine negativen Auswirkungen auf Exporte, auch nicht was Länder außerhalb von Asien betrifft. Tatsächlich haben asiatische Länder den gesamten Export der afrikanischen Staaten gefördert.

“Arme Länder profitieren”

Vor allem relativ arme Länder in Küstennähe südlich der Sahara, wie Nigeria, Tansania oder Äthiopien, konnten vom Handel mit Asien profitieren und sich in der globalen Wertschöpfungskette nach oben arbeiten”, erklärt Studienleiter Heiwai Tang. Afrikanische Firmen haben durch den Austausch mit asiatischen Handelspartnern mehr Wissen über Technologie und Märkte erlangt. Außerdem ist auch der Import aus Asien gestiegen, was die Produktivität von Firmen erhöht.

Der Studie zufolge ist China weiterhin der wichtigste asiatische Handelspartner von Afrika. Jedoch macht allmählich vor allem Indien der Volksrepublik Konkurrenz. Im Jahr 2015 wanderten doppelt so viele afrikanische Exporte auf den Subkontinent wie noch 2005. Für einzelne Staaten wie Ghana, Nigeria und Tansania ist Indien mittlerweile sogar der wichtigste Handelspartner.

Georg Haas,


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